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Colour fastness characterises a material's colour resistance to fading or running under external circumstances including colour fastness to wet and dry rubbing, washing, laundring and dry cleaning, to sweat, light and saliva
Innovation is the process of translating an idea or invention into a good or service that creates value or for which customers will pay.
Knitted fabric consists of a number of consecutive rows of interlocking loops. There are two major varieties of knitting: weft knitting and warp knitting. In the more common weft knitting, the wales are perpendicular to the course of the yarn. In warp knitting, the wales and courses run roughly parallel. In weft knitting, the entire fabric may be produced from a single yarn, by adding stitches to each wale in turn, moving across the fabric as in a raster scan. By contrast, in warp knitting, one yarn is required for every wale. Since a typical piece of knitted fabric may have hundreds of wales, warp knitting is typically done by machine, whereas weft knitting is done by both hand and machine.
Nonwoven fabrics are broadly defined as sheet or web structures bonded together by entangling fiber or filaments (and by perforating films) mechanically, thermally or chemically. They are flat or tufted porous sheets that are made directly from separate fibers, molten plastic or plastic film. They are not made by weaving or knitting and do not require converting the fibers to yarn.
In plain weave, the warp and weft are aligned to form a simple criss-cross pattern. Each weft thread crosses the warp threads by going over one, then under the next, and so on. The weft threads are lifted alternatingly.
The creation of products with new or different characteristics that offer new or additional benefits to the customer. Product development may involve modification of an existing product or its presentation, or formulation of an entirely new product that satisfies a newly defined customer want or market niche.
Systematic activity combining both basic and applied research, and aimed at discovering solutions to problems or creating new goods and knowledge. R&D may result in ownership of intellectual property such as patents.
Commonly the expressions "smart" and "intelligent" textiles or wearables are used interchangeably.The term "smart textile" may refer to either a "smart textile material" or a "smart textile system". Only the context will determine which one of the two following definitions apply: Smart (intelligent) textile material: functional textile material actively interacting with its environment, i.e. responding or adapting to changes in the environment. Smart (intelligent) textile system: textile system exhibiting an intended and exploitable response as a reaction either to changes in its surroundings/environment or to an external signal/input.
The word 'textile' is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning 'woven', from textus, the past participle of the verb texere, 'to weave'. A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial filaments (endless threads) or fibres (short pieces of thread). Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or felting. They are mostly deformable and can be one, two or three dimensional.
The weave is a system or pattern of intersecting warp and weft yarns. The aspect and properties (strength, deformability) are determined by the type of weave.