The development of new antimicrobial treatments is an area of continuing research. This entry takes a bird’s eye view on advances and focuses, in particular, on trends toward solvent-free chemistry by plasma-assisted coating deposition methods. General principles of antimicrobial and antifouling coatings are highlighted distinguishing between surface functionalization, chemical grafting, and coating deposition. The available technologies are mirrored against contemporary needs in demanding branches of industry in terms of costs, production speed, effectiveness, safety, and durability. The study shows large potential for new textile products and applications by plasma-assisted coating deposition, if process complexity, speed, coating flexibility, and precise control of leaching compounds can be achieved.