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Abacá (Musa textilis), a species of banana native to the Philippines is grown as a commercial crop in the Philippines, Ecuador, and Costa Rica, and harvested for its fibres, also called Manila hemp, extracted from the leaf-stems. The seawater resistant fibre was originally used for making twines and ropes.
The ability of a fibre or fabric to withstand surface wear and rubbing.
Cellulose acetate is the acetate ester of cellulose and was invented in 1865. It is mainly used as a synthetic fibre in textiles under the names of celanese and acetate. Applications in lingerie, wedding dresses, party dresses, blouses. At present it is mostly used in blends with cotton, wool, nylon. Also used in curtains, cigarette filters, diapers and felt-tip pens.
Acrylic, also called polyacrylic, polyacrylonitrile fibres, are synthetic fibres made from a polymer (polyacrylonitrile) by means of polymerisation.
An adhesive is a substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation. The use of adhesives offers many advantages over binding techniques such as sewing, mechanical fastening, thermal bonding, including the ability to bind different materials together, to distribute stress more efficiently across the joint, the cost effectiveness of an easily mechanized process, an improvement in aesthetic design, and increased design flexibility. Disadvantages of adhesives include decreased stability at high temperatures and relative weakness in bonding large objects with a small bonding surface area. Adhesives are typically organized by the method of adhesion. These are then organized into reactive and non-reactive adhesives referring to whether the adhesive chemically reacts in order to harden. Alternatively they can be organized by whether the raw stock is of natural or synthetic origin, or by their starting physical phase (liquid, solid, gaseous).
The picture shows a pair of blue jeans with glued instead of stitched seams (realised by Centexbel for G+N (The Netherlands) by using hotmelt)
Advertainment is a term used to describe entertainment that incorporates elements of advertising. It is the practice of integrating brand communications within the content of entertainment products (movies, songs, TV shows, etc.) The word advertainment is a portmanteau of advertising and entertainment.
The porosity, or the ease with which air passes through material. Air Permeability determines such factors as the wind resistance of sailcloth, the air resistance of parachute cloth, and the efficiency of various types of air filtration media. It is also a measure of warmness or coolness of a fabric.
A pneumatic spinning system in which yarn is made by wrapping fibers around a core stream of fibers with compressed air.
Airlaid nonwovens are made by bringing fibres into an air flow and from there to a moving belt or perforated drum, where they shape a randomly leaning web.
Animal fibres are natural fibres derived from sheep, camels, lamas, rabbits, goats, etc (wool) of from silkworms or spiders (silk).
Semimetallic chemical element that has been known since ancient times. It is sometimes found free in nature, but is usually obtained from the ores stibnite (Sb2S3) and valentinite (Sb2O3). Nicolas Lémery, a French chemist, was the first person to scientifically study antimony and its compounds. He published his findings in 1707.
Applications: antimony is used as a catalyst in the production of polyester, as a flame-retardant and in many other applications.
Health risks: Exposure to relatively high concentrations of antimony (9 mg/m³ of air) for a longer period of time can cause irritation of the eyes, skin and lungs.
Aramid fibres (Nomex, Kevlar)
Aramid fibres are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibres. Nomex and Kevlar are trade names. Aramid fibres or "aromatic polyamide" fibres are used in aerospace and military applications, in bullet-proof armor fabrics and ballistic composites, in bicycle tires, marine cordage, marine hull reinforcement, and as an asbestos substitute. Aramids have a very high melting point (>500 °C).
Arsenic is a chemical element with atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic is a metalloid. It has various allotropes, but only the gray form is important to industry.
Applications: Arsenic and its compounds are used in some dyestuffs, pesticides, treated wood products, herbicides, and insecticides.
Health risks: Exposure to inorganic arsenic can cause various health effects, such as irritation of the stomach and intestines, decreased production of red and white blood cells, skin changes and lung irritation. Organic arsenic can cause neither cancer, nor DNA damage. But exposure to high doses may cause certain effects to human health, such as nerve injury and stomachaches.
Asbestos is the name given to several natural minerals (anthophyllite, amphibole, serpentine) which occur in a fibrous crystalline form. The asbestos is initially crushed to open up the fibre mass, followed by carding and spinning to yield fibres of circular cross-section 1-30 cm in length. Asbestos is very resistant to heat and burning, to acids and alkalies, and to other chemicals. Although it has low strength, asbestos fibre does not deteriorate in normal usage, and it is not attacked by insects or microorganisms. Asbestos is used in fireproof clothing, conveyor belts, brake linings, gaskets, industrial packings, electrical windings, insulations, and soundproofing materials.
Since it has been proven that inhaled asbestos fibres are a serious health hazard, it has been removed from the textile and other markets.
An autoclave is a pressure chamber used to carry out industrial processes requiring elevated temperature and pressure different from ambient air pressure. Autoclaves are used in the textile industry to carry out certain finishing operations. In medical applications autoclaves are used to perform sterilization and in the chemical industry to cure coatings and vulcanize rubber.
Azo dyes are organic compounds and widely used to dye textiles, leather articles, and some foods. Chemically related to azo dyes are azo pigments, which are insoluble in water and other solvents. Many azo pigments are non-toxic, although some, such as dinitroaniline orange, ortho-nitroaniline orange, or pigment orange 1, 2, and 5 are mutagenic and carcinogenic.
Azo dyes derived from benzidine are carcinogens; exposure to them has classically been associated with bladder cancer. Accordingly, the production of benzidine azo dyes was discontinued in the 1980s "in the most important western industrialized countries".
Certain azo dyes degrade under reductive conditions to release any of a group of defined aromatic amines. Consumer goods which contain listed aromatic amines originating from azo dyes were prohibited from manufacture and sale in European Union countries in September 2003. As only a small number of dyes contained an equally small number of amines, relatively few products were affected.
Garments for children during the first year of their life. STANDARD 100 by OEKO-TEX® imposes the strictest safety requirements on clothing/articles for baby's and toddlers up to 3 years of age (underwear, rompers, clothing, bed linen, terry products etc.).
Bast fibre is plant fibre collected from the phloem or bast surrounding the stem of certain plants. Examples are: flax (linen), hemp, jute, kenaf, kudzu, okra, ramie.
Ecru yarn with brown spots, often used in the production of carpets.
Big science is a term used by scientists and historians of science to describe a series of changes in science which occurred in industrial nations during and after World War II, as scientific progress increasingly came to rely on large-scale projects usually funded by national governments or groups of governments.
The term bio-based product refers to products wholly or partly derived from biomass, such as plants, trees or animals (the biomass can have undergone physical, chemical or biological treatment). A standard defining general terms to be used in the field of bio-based products, EN 16575, was published by CEN in August 2014.
The bioburden is the amount of microbiological contamination of an object before sterilisation. During the testing of this parameter, the number of germs and the type of microbiological contamination remaining after cleaning and disinfection before sterilisation are counted. The bioburden must be below a certain limit in order to guarantee proper sterilisation.
Biocidal Products Regulation
The Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR, Regulation (EU) 528/2012) concerns the placing on the market and use of biocidal products, which are used to protect humans, animals, materials or articles against harmful organisms like pests or bacteria, by the action of the active substances contained in the biocidal product. This regulation aims to improve the functioning of the biocidal products market in the EU, while ensuring a high level of protection for humans and the environment.
Biocompatible materials are compatible with human and/or animal tissues and therefore suitable for medical therapy. They are key ingredients in several implants such as those used for joints, sutures, bone plates, and medical devices such as blood tubes, artificial heart, pacemakers, etc.
A biodegradable material breaks down - in the presence of oxygen, at ambient temperature and under the influence of micro-organisms - into CO2, water, mineral salts and biomass.
In the absence of oxygen, the biodegradable material is converted into CO2, methane, mineral salts and biomass.
A blockchain is a digital record of transactions. The name comes from its structure, in which individual records, called blocks, are linked together in single list, called a chain. Blockchains are used for recording transactions made with cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, and have many other applications.
Blow molding is a process to create a thermoplastic hollow tube. In heated form, the tube is sealed at one end and then blown up like a balloon. The expansion is carried out in a split mold with a cold surface; as the thermoplastic encounters the surface, it cools and becomes dimensionally stable. Blow molding is employed to produce bottles of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polycarbonate, PVC, and PET for domestic consumer products. It is also used to produce fuel tanks for automobiles.
A bra, short for brassiere, is a form-fitting undergarment designed to support and protect a woman's breasts.
Cadmium is a lustrous, silver-white, ductile, very malleable metal. Its surface has a bluish tinge and the metal is soft enough to be cut with a knife, but it tarnishes in air. It is soluble in acids but not in alkalis. It is similar in many respects to zinc but it forms more complex compounds.
Applications: About three-fourths of cadmium is used in Ni-Cd batteries, most of the remaining one-fourth is used mainly for pigments, coatings and plating, and as stabilizers for plastics.
Heath risks: Human uptake of cadmium takes place mainly through food. Foodstuffs that are rich in cadmium can greatly increase the cadmium concentration in human bodies. Examples are liver, mushrooms, shellfish, mussels, cocoa powder and dried seaweed. High exposures can occur with people who live near hazardous waste sites or factories that release cadmium into the air and people that work in the metal refinery industry. When people breathe in cadmium it can severely damage the lungs. This may even cause death.
Animal fibre obtained from the camel and belonging to the group called specialty hair fibres. The most satisfactory textile fibre is gathered from camels of the Bactrian type. Such camels have protective outer coats of coarse fibre that may grow as long as 40 cm. The fine, shorter fibre of the insulating undercoat, 4–13 cm long, is the product generally called camel hair, or camel hair wool. The hair is not usually gathered by shearing or plucking; it is most often collected as the animal sheds its coat. Combing, frequently by machine, separates the desirable down from the coarse outer hairs. The resultant fine fibre has a tiny diameter of 5–40 microns and is usually a reddish tan colour. Fabric made of camel hair has excellent insulating properties and is warm and comfortable. Camel hair is mainly used for high-grade overcoat fabrics and is also made into knitting yarn, knitwear, blankets, and rugs. The coarse outer fibre is strong and is used in industrial fabrics such as machine beltings.
Carbon fibres (CF) have a diameter of about 5 to 10 micrometres and are mostly composed of carbon atoms. Carbon fibres have several advantages including high stiffness, high tensile strength, low weight, high chemical resistance, high temperature tolerance and low thermal expansion. These properties have made carbon fiber very popular in aerospace, civil engineering, military, and motorsports, along with other competition sports. Carbon fibres are usually combined with other materials to form a composite. A carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer has a very high strength-to-weight ratio, and is extremely rigid although somewhat brittle.
Carding is a mechanical process that disentangles, cleans and intermixes fibres to produce a continuous web or sliver suitable for subsequent processing. This is achieved by passing the fibres between differentially moving surfaces covered with card clothing. It breaks up locks and unorganised clumps of fibre and then aligns the individual fibres to be parallel with each other. In preparing wool fibre for spinning, carding is the step that comes after teasing.
A carpet is a textile floor covering and may consist of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing. The pile usually consists of twisted tufts which are thermally treated to maintain their structure. Carpets can be woven, tutfed, knotted or nonwoven (eg. needle punched).
The term "carpet" is often used interchangeably with the term "rug", although a "rug" is generally no bigger than a single room.
In the event the carpet is attached as part of the floor, it is regarded as a building product that falls under the scope of European Regulation No. 305/2011 (Construction Products Regulation, CPR)
A carpet backing may be composed of different elements. The primary backing is usually a woven or non-woven fabric on which the yarns are tufted. A secondary backing is a second fabric or polymer layer that is applied onto the backing of the carpet.
Carpet tile, also known as modular tile, is carpet manufactured in tiles or as piece goods. A carpet tile is commonly square, but they may be also available in other shapes (eg. rectangular). The main advantage of carpet tiles to full carpets is that only the damaged / worn tiles have to be replaced instead of the entire carpet.
A carpet underlay is a layer of felt, rubber or a synthetic material (e.g. polyurethane) placed underneath the carpet to reduce the friction of the carpet against a hard ground surface. It protects the carpet against wear and increases the comfort.
Animal-hair fibre forming the downy undercoat of the Kashmir goat and belonging to the group of textile fibres called specialty hair fibres. Although the word cashmere is sometimes incorrectly applied to extremely soft wools, only the product of the Kashmir goat is true cashmere. The cashmere goat has a protective outer coat of coarse fibre that is 4 to 20 cm (1.5 to 8 inches) in length. The downy undercoat is made up of the fine, soft fibre commonly called cashmere, which ranges from 2.5 to 9 cm (1 to 3.5 inches) long. Thanks to the fineness, the lightweight cashmere fibres have a high thermal insulation.
Cashmere yarn is spun of the cashmere goat's fine, soft, downy winter undercoat. Cashmere yarn is incredibly fine: since an average hair has a diameter of less than 12 to 19 micrometer.
Cationic dye, basic dye
Basic dyes are water-soluble cationic dyes (= dyes that can be dissociated into positively charged ions in the aqueous solution) that are mainly applied to acrylic fibres.
Cellulose triacetate is a chemical compound manufactured from cellulose and a source of acetate esters, typically acetic anhydride. Cellulose triacetate is mainly used in the production of textiles and is highly heat resistant (to 200°C).
Chenille may refer to either a type of yarn or fabric made from it. Chenille is the French word for caterpillar whose fur the yarn is supposed to resemble. Today, the chenille yarn is manufactured by placing short lengths of yarn, called the "pile", between two "core yarns" and then twisting the yarn together. The edges of these piles then stand at right angles to the yarn’s core, giving chenille both its softness and its characteristic look. The yarn is commonly manufactured from cotton, but can also be made using acrylic, rayon and olefin.
Firm, thick, little crimped wool type derived from the cheviot, an English-Scottish sheep breed from the Cheviot Mountains between Northumberland and the Scottish border.
Synthetic fibre made from the polymerization of a chlorinated monomer (especially from forms of polyvinyl chloride).
The circular economy is an economic system in which the reusability of products and raw materials is optimized and value destruction are minimized. In contrast to the present linear system in which raw materials are being transformed into products that are destroyed at their end of life.
Making use of renewable energy, biobased or fully recyclable raw materials.
Knitwear in the form of a seamless tube created by a circular knitting.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is fibre and textile material worn on the body. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings and is a feature of nearly all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depends on body type, social, and geographic considerations. Some clothing can be gender-specific. Clothing protects the wearer and has a symbolic (social, moral, religious) value.
In clothing, clothing size refers to the label sizes used for garments sold off-the-shelf. There are a large number of standard sizing systems around the world for various garments, such as dresses, tops, skirts, and trousers.
Coconut fibre, coir fibre
Coir or coconut fibre, is a natural fibre extracted from the husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats, brushes and mattresses. Coir is the fibrous material found between the hard, internal shell and the outer coat of a coconut. Other uses of brown coir (made from ripe coconut) are in upholstery padding, sacking and horticulture. White coir, harvested from unripe coconuts, is used for making finer brushes, string, rope and fishing nets.
Colour fastness characterises a material's colour resistance to fading or running under external circumstances including colour fastness to wet and dry rubbing, washing, laundring and dry cleaning, to sweat, light and saliva
Long-staple strong-fibred wool found suitable for combing and used especially in the manufacture of worsteds.
Composites are materials made of at least two different materials. In structural applications, fibre-reinforced plastics - in which the fibres have been dispersed into a matrix - are commonly used. The term "composite" not only includes fibre reinforced plastics but a whole series of materials or products composed of different components (concrete, asphalt, ceramic composites...).
Compostable plastics are defined according to standards EN13432, EN14995 or ISO17088 and must comply with the following principles:
- min. 90% biodegradation to water, CO2 and minerals within 6 months; for home composting within 12 months;
- low concentration of heavy metals;
- no influence on the quality of compost.
Because of the strong differences, a distinction is made between industrial composting and home composting.
Compounding consists of preparing plastic or synthetic yarn formulations by mixing and/or blending polymers and (functional) additives in a molten state.
Compression stockings are a specialized hosiery designed to help prevent the occurrence of, and guard against further progression of, venous disorders such as edema, phlebitis and thrombosis. Compression stockings are elastic garments worn around the leg, compressing the limb. This reduces the diameter of distended veins and increases venous blood flow velocity and valve effectiveness.
1. The waviness of a fiber expressed as crimps per unit length.
2. The difference in distance between two points on an unstretched fiber and the same two points when the fiber is straightened under specified tension. Crimp is expressed as a percentage of the unstretched length.
3. The difference in distance between two points on a yarn as it lies in a fabric and the same two points when the yarn has been removed from the fabric and straightened under specified tension, expressed as a percentage of the distance between the two points as the yarn lies in the fabric.
Wool from a sheep breed that was obtained by crossing several sheep breeds.
Crowdfunding is an alternative form of finance, by which a project or venture is funded by raising many small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet.
Cut fibre, staple fibre
If a continuous filament is cut into discrete lengths, it becomes staple fibre.
Cutting-edge technology refers to current and fully developed technology features.
Cyber-physical system (CPS)
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are integrations of computation, networking, and physical processes. Embedded computers and networks monitor and control the physical processes, with feedback loops where physical processes affect computations and vice versa. The economic and societal potential of such systems is vastly greater than what has been realized, and major investments are being made worldwide to develop the technology. The technology builds on the existing discipline of embedded systems, computers and software embedded in devices whose principle mission is not computation, such as cars, toys, medical devices, and scientific instruments. CPS integrates the dynamics of the physical processes with those of the software and networking, providing abstractions and modeling, design, and analysis techniques for the integrated whole.
Damask is a reversible figured fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibres, with a pattern formed by weaving. Damasks are woven with one warp yarn and one weft yarn, usually with the pattern in warp-faced satin weave and the ground in weft-faced or sateen weave. Twill damasks include a twill-woven ground or pattern.
Denier number indicates the weight in grams of 9,000 metres of filament or filament yarn. For example, if 9,000 metres of a yarn weigh 15 grams, it is a 15-denier yarn; if 9,000 metres of a yarn weigh 100 grams, it is a 100-denier yarn and much coarser than the 15-denier yarn. Thus, a smaller number indicates a finer yarn. This system is not convenient for measurement of staple yarns because their greater weight would require the use of very large numbers.
A digital twin is a digital replica of a physical-world asset or process that integrates data from both the digital and material worlds, enabling companies to run virtual simulations before committing to physical-world actions.
Direct dye, also called Substantive Dye, any of a class of coloured, water-soluble compounds that have an affinity for fibre and are taken up directly, such as the benzidine derivatives. Direct dyes are usually cheap and easily applied, and they can yield bright colours. Washfastness is poor but may be improved by aftertreatment. Most packaged dyes sold for home use are direct dyes.
Disperse dyes were originally developed for the dyeing of cellulose acetate, and are water-insoluble. The dyes are finely ground in the presence of a dispersing agent and sold as a paste, or spray-dried and sold as a powder. Their main use is to dye polyester and other synthetic fibres.
A disruptive innovation is an innovation that creates a new market and value network and eventually disrupts an existing market and value network, displacing established market-leading firms, products, and alliances. The term was defined and first analyzed by the American scholar Clayton M. Christensen and his collaborators beginning in 1995, and has been called the most influential business idea of the early 21st century.
Ecodesign stands for life cycle thinking where for each phase of a product's life cycle (from raw material to end of use) the designer considers the input of energy and resources and the output of waste and emissions, with the aim of minimizing environmental impact. The ecodesign rules of thumb align perfectly with the principles of the circular economy. Integrating ecodesign into the design process reduces environmental impact and ensures that the product fits into the circular economy.
Elastane, Spandex, Lycra
Spandex, Lycra or elastane is a synthetic fibre known for its exceptional elasticity. This polyether-polyurea copolymer has been invented in 1958 by chemist Joseph Shivers at DuPont's.
An elastomer is a polymer with viscoelasticity (having both viscosity and elasticity). Elastomers are usually thermosets (requiring vulcanization) but may also be thermoplastic (see thermoplastic elastomer). The long polymer chains cross-link during curing, i.e., vulcanizing. The molecular structure of elastomers can be imagined as a 'spaghetti and meatball' structure, with the meatballs signifying cross-links. The elasticity is derived from the ability of the long chains to reconfigure themselves to distribute an applied stress.
C2H6O2 - CAS:107-21-1 - organic compound that is used as a raw material to manufacture polyester fibres and in antifreeze formulations. It is an odourless, colourless, sweet-tasting, viscous liquid. Ethylene glycol is moderately toxic.
Extrusion (textile fibre formation)
Most synthetic and cellulosic manufactured fibres are created by “extrusion” — forcing a thick, viscous liquid through the tiny holes of a spinneret to form continuous filaments of semi-solid polymer.
In their initial state, the fibre-forming polymers are solids and therefore must be first converted into a fluid state for extrusion. This is usually achieved by melting, if the polymers are thermoplastic synthetics (i.e., they soften and melt when heated), or by dissolving them in a suitable solvent if they are non-thermoplastic cellulosic. If they cannot be dissolved or melted directly, they must be chemically treated to form soluble or thermoplastic derivatives.
A feed roller forwards a yarn to the subsequent processing or take-up stage.
Felt, a class of fabrics or fibrous structures obtained through the interlocking of wool, fur, or some hair fibres under conditions of heat, moisture, and friction. Other fibres will not felt alone but can be mixed with wool, which acts as a carrier. Several industries manufacture goods through the use of these properties. The goods produced include wool felt in rolls and sheets; hats, both fur and wool; and woven felts, ranging from thin billiard tablecloths to heavy industrial fabrics used for dewatering in the manufacture of paper.
Fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP)
Fibre-reinforced polymer materials consist of fibres, which have high strength and modulus, bonded to a matrix, which may have different physical and chemical identities.
Yarn consisting of one or more filaments.
First year's wool
The second shearing of a lamb, younger than 12 months, and stronger than lambswool.
Flannel is a soft woven fabric, of various fineness. Flannel was originally made from carded wool or worsted yarn, but is now often made from either wool, cotton, or synthetic fibre. Flannel may be brushed to create extra softness or remain unbrushed.Flannel is commonly used to make tartan clothing, blankets, bed sheets, and sleepwear.
Long flax fibres are used to produce linen. At first, the short fibres were used for ropes and the broken stems as fuel. Later on, it was discovered that the short fibres could also be used to make paper; the American dollar bills are still made from flax. Today flax fibres are increasingly used to reinforce composite materials.
Silk made from the hard core of the pod of the silkworm.
Fluorescent materials absorb light photons with short wavelengths (highly energetic) and rather quickly re-emit light with a longer wavelength. Optical brighteners are typical examples; by absorbing UV rays and re-emitting visible light it creates an optical effect of enhanced whiteness.
The functionality economy replaces the sale of a product with the sale of a service fulfilling the same functions as the product. It is based on the value of using the product and not of owning of the product. In effect, the product remains the property of the producer and its use is invoiced to the customer. The relationship between the supplier and the customer then extends for the duration of the use of the product, and no longer for a single moment during the sale transaction. This new method of consumption can strengthen a company's market position, encourage local employment and extend the useful life of a product. By optimising the use of material resources, the functionality economy contributes to a more sustainable economy.
Glass fibre is a very fine fibre made from glass and is produced by means of a melting process. Glass fibres are used as reinforcement in composites, or as insulation in the form of glass wool.
The use of services and related products which respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life while minimizing the use of natural resources and toxic materials as well as emissions of waste and pollutants over the life cycle of the service or product so as not to jeopardize the needs of future generations.
The creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. Haute couture is high-end fashion that is constructed by hand from start to finish, made from high-quality, expensive, often unusual fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable sewers, often using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques
High-density polyethylene (HDPE)
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum. Because of its high strength-to-density ratio, HDPE is used in the production of plastic bottles, corrosion-resistant piping, geomembranes, and plastic lumber. HDPE is commonly recycled.
Horsehair is the long, coarse hair growing on the manes and tails of horses. It is used for various purposes, including upholstery, brushes, the bows of musical instruments, a hard-wearing fabric called haircloth, and for horsehair plaster, a wallcovering material formerly used in the construction industry and now found only in older buildings. Horsehair can be very stiff or very fine and flexible; mane hair is generally softer and shorter than tail hair. The texture of horsehair can be influenced by the breed and management of the horse, including natural conditions such as diet or climate. Processing may also affect quality and feel.
Horsehair is a protein fiber that absorbs water slowly, but can be dyed or colored effectively using traditional dyes suitable for protein fibers. It can be felted, but not easily.
Incapsulated products are surrounded by a polymer shell that protects them from the matrix at the other side of the polymer. The polymer shell can be broken or not.
A series of small improvements to an existing product or product line that usually helps companies to maintain or improve their competitive position over time.
In a legal sense, an industrial design constitutes the ornamental or aesthetic aspect of an article. An industrial design may consist of three dimensional features, such as the shape of an article, or two dimensional features, such as patterns, lines or colour.
Industry 4.0 a.k.a. smart industry is the next phase in the digitization of the manufacturing sector, driven by four disruptions: the astonishing rise in data volumes, computational power, and connectivity, especially new low-power wide-area networks; the emergence of analytics and business-intelligence capabilities; new forms of human-machine interaction such as touch interfaces and augmented-reality systems; and improvements in transferring digital instructions to the physical world, such as advanced robotics and 3D printing.
Injection Moulding is a manufacturing process for producing parts in large volume. It is most typically used in mass-production processes where the same part is being created thousands or even millions of times in succession.
The principal advantage of injection molding is the ability to scale production en masse. Once the initial costs have been paid the price per unit during injection molded manufacturing is extremely low. The price also tends to drop drastically as more parts are produced.
Innovation is the process of translating an idea or invention into a good or service that creates value or for which customers will pay.
Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the intellect for which a monopoly is assigned to designated owners by law. Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are the rights granted to the creators of IP, and include trademarks, copyright, patents, industrial design rights, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets. Artistic works including music and literature, as well as discoveries, inventions, words, phrases, symbols, and designs can all be protected as intellectual property.
Internet of Things (IoT)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.
The design of the jacquard fabric is incorporated into the weave, instead of being printed or dyed onto the fabric.
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibres and it is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses of vegetable fibres. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin.
Knitted fabric consists of a number of consecutive rows of interlocking loops. There are two major varieties of knitting: weft knitting and warp knitting. In the more common weft knitting, the wales are perpendicular to the course of the yarn. In warp knitting, the wales and courses run roughly parallel. In weft knitting, the entire fabric may be produced from a single yarn, by adding stitches to each wale in turn, moving across the fabric as in a raster scan. By contrast, in warp knitting, one yarn is required for every wale. Since a typical piece of knitted fabric may have hundreds of wales, warp knitting is typically done by machine, whereas weft knitting is done by both hand and machine.
Knitwear, knitted fabric
Knitted fabric consists of a number of consecutive rows of interlocking loops. There are two major varieties of knitting: weft knitting and warp knitting. In the more common weft knitting, the wales are perpendicular to the course of the yarn. In warp knitting, the wales and courses run roughly parallel. In weft knitting, the entire fabric may be produced from a single yarn, by adding stitches to each wale in turn, moving across the fabric as in a raster scan. By contrast, in warp knitting, one yarn is required for every wale. Since a typical piece of knitted fabric may have hundreds of wales, warp knitting is typically done by machine, whereas weft knitting is done by both hand and machine.
Textile products shall be labelled or marked to give an indication of their fibre composition whenever they are made available on the market. The labelling and marking of textile products shall be durable, easily legible, visible and accessible and, in the case of a label, securely attached.
Laundry symbol, care symbol
A laundry symbol, also called a care symbol, is a pictogram which represents a method of washing. Such symbols are written on labels, known as care labels or care tags, attached to clothing to indicate how a particular item should best be cleaned. The ISO pictograms are trademarks of GINETEX (Groupement International d'Etiquetage pour l'Entretien des Textiles), founded in 1963.
Leaf fibres are natural cellulosic fibres collected from plant leaves. Typical examples are sisal, abaca and raffia.
Doing more with less by employing 'lean thinking.' Lean manufacturing involves never ending efforts to eliminate or reduce three enemies of Lean: Muda (waste), Muri (overburden) and Mura (unevenness) - or any activity that consumes resources without adding value - in design, manufacturing, distribution, and customer service processes. The Lean concept was developed by Toyota.
Linen is a fabric made from the fibres of the flax plant. Garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot weather. Linen textiles appear to be some of the oldest in the world: their history goes back many thousands of years. Fragments of straw, seeds, fibers, yarns, and various types of fabrics dating to about 8000 BC have been found in Swiss lake dwellings. Dyed flax fibres found in a prehistoric cave in Georgia suggest the use of woven linen fabrics from wild flax may date back even earlier to 36,000 BC.
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE)
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is a thermoplastic made from the monomer ethylene. LDPE is not reactive at room temperatures, except by strong oxidizing agents, and some solvents cause swelling. It can withstand temperatures of 80 °C continuously and 95 °C for a short time. Made in translucent or opaque variations, it is quite flexible and tough. LDPE is widely used to manufacture various containers, dispensing bottles, wash bottles, tubing, plastic bags for computer components, and various moulded laboratory equipment. Its most common use is in plastic bags.
Man-made fibre, synthetic fibre
Fibre, whose chemical composition, structure, and properties are significantly modified during the manufacturing process. Man-made fibres are spun and woven into a huge number of consumer and industrial products, including garments, home furnishings such as upholstery, carpets, and drapes; and industrial parts such as tire cord, flame-proof linings, and drive belts. The chemical compounds from which man-made fibres are produced are known as polymers, a class of compounds characterized by long, chainlike molecules of great size and molecular weight. Many of the polymers that constitute man-made fibres are the same as or similar to compounds that make up plastics, rubbers, adhesives, and surface coatings.
Production of personalized or custom-tailored goods or services to meet consumers' diverse and changing needs at near massproduction prices. Enabled by technologies such as computerization, internet, product modularization, and lean production, it portends the ultimate stage in market segmentation where every customer can have exactly what he or she wants.
Ticking is a cotton or linen textile that is tightly woven for durability and to prevent down feathers from poking through the fabric, and is used to cover mattresses and bed pillows.
Medical face masks
Medical face masks are intended to be used in operating rooms and health care settings with similar requirements, and are designed to protect the entire working environment.
They are evaluated according to the European standard 14683:2019 - Medical face masks - Requirements and test methods and US standard ASTM F2100-11 Standard specification for performance of material used in medical face masks.
Memory foam (brand name TEMPUR®) mainly consists of polyurethane as well as additional chemicals increasing its viscosity and density. It is often referred to as "viscoelastic" polyurethane foam, or low-resilience polyurethane foam (LRPu). Higher-density memory foam softens in reaction to body heat, allowing it to mold to a warm body in a few minutes. It is especially applied in mattresses and pillows/cushions to lower the pressure on protruding body parts.
Fine, strongly crimping type of wool from the merino sheep.
Inorganic type of fibre with conductive or EMI shielding characteristics.
Synthetic fibre which titre is finer than one denier or decitex (1 g/10 km).
Microplastics come from a variety of sources, including from larger plastic debris (including fibres) that degrades into smaller and smaller pieces, under the influence of UV radiation (especially(UV-B). The movement of the waves and oxydants cause the plastics that are floating or that are suspended near the water surface to rapidly release diverse organic molecules into the sea. This has already been demonstrated in the case of polyethylene, polypropoylene, polysterene and polyethylene terephthalate that will release molecules with a low molecular weight within a few days. In addition, microbeads, a type of microplastic, are very tiny pieces of manufactured polyethylene plastic that are added as exfoliants to health and beauty products, such as some cleansers and toothpastes. These tiny particles easily pass through water filtration systems and end up in the ocean, posing a potential threat to aquatic life.
Mineral fibres are inorganic fibres and can be extruded from minerals and metals: ceramic fibres, basalt fibres, glassfibres…
Polymer fibres containing at least 50 % and at the most 85 % acrylonitrile.
Chrome based dye that has to be blended with different types of acid to color wools and cotton.
MRSL versus RSL
MRSL and RSL are terms used in relation to managing restricted substances during the manufacturing process and finished products respectively. Both are often used as chemical checklists to support product safety and chemical management activities.
MRSL stands for Manufacturing Restricted Substance List, and provides manufacturers, suppliers, brands and retailers with acceptable limits of restricted substances in chemical formulations, which are used in the material and product manufacturing processes. An MRSL is used as a tool by companies around the world to regulate the safety of chemical formulations used in manufacturing processes. The regulation of chemical formulations upstream, through an MRSL, protects workers, consumers and the environment. Adhering to an MRSL can also protect brands and retailers from any potential negative publicity on product safety.
RSL stands for Restricted Substances List and is often used as a chemical checklist when testing finished products for the presence of restricted substances. An RSL is applicable to finished articles and/or components. An RSL is used as a tool to aid regulatory compliance to global product safety standards such as REACH, CPSIA, California Proposition 65.
Natural fibres are vegetable, animal, or mineral in origin. Natural fibres include protein fibres such as wool and silk, cellulose fibres such as cotton and linen, and mineral fibres such as asbestos (a silicate mineral).
A necktie, or simply a tie, is a long piece of cloth, worn usually by men, for decorative purposes around the neck, resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat.
The modern necktie spread by Europe traces back to the time of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) when Croatian mercenaries from the Croatian Military Frontier in French service, wearing their traditional small, knotted neckerchiefs, aroused the interest of the Parisians. Because of the slight difference between the Croatian word for Croats, Hrvati, and the French word, Croates, the garment gained the name "cravat" ("cravate" in French). The boy-king Louis XIV began wearing a lace cravat about 1646, when he was seven, and set the fashion for French nobility. This new article of clothing started a fashion craze in Europe; both men and women wore pieces of fabric around their necks. From its introduction by the French king, men wore lace cravats, or jabots, that took a large amount of time and effort to arrange. These cravats were often tied in place by cravat strings, arranged neatly and tied in a bow.
A needle felt is a non-woven fabric usually composed of synthetic fibres (PES, PP). The fibres are mechanically binded by means of needle punching,
NIAS - Non intentionally added Substances
During the life cycle of food contact materials, unexpected and potentially harmful substances may migrate from packaging materials to food products. According to the legislation, NIAS (non intentionally added substances) have to be assessed using scientifically recognised principles of risk assessment. The Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food, states that potential health risks in the final food packaging products or articles should be assessed by the manufacturer in accordance with internationally recognised principles of risk assessment.
Nonwoven fabrics are broadly defined as sheet or web structures bonded together by entangling fiber or filaments (and by perforating films) mechanically, thermally or chemically. They are flat or tufted porous sheets that are made directly from separate fibers, molten plastic or plastic film. They are not made by weaving or knitting and do not require converting the fibers to yarn.
Generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides. Developed as a synthetic substitute for silk.
The strength of Nylon really revolutionized the clothing for women especially in WW II. During the war exports of silk to the western countries were stopped and women didn’t have stockings to wear. Nylons fixed this problem by providing reusable stockings. It was durable and could be manufactured without importing other natural materials. Nylon also revolutionized the consumer market by providing better materials to help with consumer convenience.
A one-piece swimsuit is worn (usually by women, but in former times also by men) when swimming or diving, or for sun bathing.
Open-end spinning is a technology for creating yarn without using a spindle. It is also known as break spinning or rotor spinning. Sliver from the card goes into the rotor, is spun into yarn and comes out, wrapped up on a bobbin, all ready to go to the next step.
An overcoat is a type of long coat intended to be worn as the outermost garment, which usually extends below the knee. Overcoats are most commonly used in winter when warmth is more important.
Greatcoat, a voluminous overcoat with multiple shoulder capes, prominently featured by European militaries, most notably the former Soviet Union.
Redingote (via French from English riding coat), a long fitted coat for men or women.
Frock overcoat, a very formal daytime overcoat commonly worn with a frock coat, featuring a waist seam and heavy waist suppression.
Ulster coat, a working daytime overcoat initially with a cape top covering sleeves, but then without; it evolved to the polo coat after losing its cape.
Inverness coat, a formal evening or working day overcoat, with winged sleeves.
Paletot coat, a coat shaped with side-bodies, as a slightly less formal alternative to the frock overcoat.
Paddock coat, with even less shaping.
Chesterfield coat, a long overcoat with very little waist suppression; being the equivalent of the "sack suit" for clothes, it came to be the most important overcoat of the next half-century.
PEEK is a thermoplastic polymer showing excellent performances in a large range of temperatures and extreme conditions. PEEK combines an exceptional thermal, chemical and mechanical resistance. PEEK can be applied at a continuous working tempature of 250°C and has an excellent long-term chamical resistance. Polyetheretherketone, or PEEK, was originally developed in the late 1970s by the US aerospace industry, which was taken by its properties of stability at high temperatures and thus its potential for high-load, high-temperature applications. In the late 1990s, a highly pure and implantable grade of PEEK known as PEEK-OPTIMA was commercialised by Invibio Biomaterial Solutions and subsequently embraced by the medical device industry.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection.
Phase change materials (PCM)
Phase change materials (PCM) are substances that absorb and release thermal energy during the process of melting and freezing. When a PCM freezes, it releases a large amount of energy in the form of latent heat at a relatively constant temperature. Conversely, when such material melts, it absorbs a large amount of heat from the environment. PCMs recharge as ambient temperatures fluctuate, making them ideal for a variety of everyday applications that require temperature control.
Phosphorescence substances absorb energy that is released relatively slowly in the form of light. This is in some cases the mechanism used for "glow-in-the-dark" materials which are "charged" by exposure to light. Phosphorescent materials "store" absorbed energy for a longer time, as the processes required to re-emit energy occur less often.
Photochromatic materials are colourless materials that "emit" colour when exposed to light, such as visible light or UV rays. When exposed to light, the molecular structure changes by which the materials obtain colour. When the light source is removed, the colour disappears too.
Photovoltaic cells are semi-conductors capable of generating an electric tension under the influence of sun rays. To produce a substantial quantity of energy, several cells are connected.
Fabric with cut fibres or uncut loops which stand up densely on the surface. Usually has a plush feel (i.e., bath towel, velvet).
In plain weave, the warp and weft are aligned to form a simple criss-cross pattern. Each weft thread crosses the warp threads by going over one, then under the next, and so on. The weft threads are lifted alternatingly.
Plush is a soft and hairy textile having a cut nap or pile. Originally the pile of plush consisted of mohair or worsted yarn, but now silk by itself or with a cotton backing is used for plush. The soft material is largely used for upholstery, furniture and toys. Modern plush are commonly manufactured from synthetic fibres such as polyester.
Polar fleece is a soft napped insulating fabric made from polyester.
Synthetic fibre made from polyacrylonitrile. Polyacrylic forms long linear molecules that are very suited as textile fibres.
Nylon is the generic name for all long-chain fibre-forming polyamides with recurring amide groups. Polyamides comprise the largest family of engineering plastics with a very wide range of applications. Polyamides are often formed into fibres and are used for monofilaments and yarns. Characteristically polyamides are very resistant to wear and abrasion, have good mechanical properties even at elevated temperatures, have low permeability to gases and have good chemical resistance.
Polybenzimidazoles are a class of extremely heat-resistant heterocyclic thermoplastics. They are prepared from an aromatic tetraamine and an aromatic dicarboxylic acid or a derivative of it. Polybenzimidazoles are known for their high-strength and high-temperature performance. They find applications in many industrial fields including semiconductor, petrochemcial and aerospace industries. Major applications include heat resistant apparels, contact seals, wafer carriers, membranes for various separation processes, insulator bushings, and thermal isolators.
Thermoplastic polyester is used in textile applications. The polyester granules are melted in an extruder and processed into monofilaments.
Polyethylene is produced by the polymerisation of ethene. Ethene is obtained by the deconstruction of a.o. naphta, a light petrol derivate. Poly(ethene) is produced in different forms including low density (LDPE) (< 0.930 g cm³), linear low density (LLDPE) (ca 0.915-0.940 g cm³) and high density (HDPE) (ca 0.940-0.965 g cm³).
Polypropylene (polypropene) is a synthetic resin built up by the polymerization of propylene. One of the important family of polyolefin resins, polypropylene is molded or extruded into many plastic products in which toughness, flexibility, light weight, and heat resistance are required. It is also spun into fibres for applications in industrial and household textiles. Propylene can also be polymerized with ethylene to produce an elastic ethylene-propylene copolymer.
Polyurethanes are formed by reacting a polyol (an alcohol with more than two reactive hydroxyl groups per molecule) with a diisocyanate or a polymeric isocyanate in the presence of suitable catalysts and additives. Polyurethanes can be a found in mattresses, couches, insulation, liquid coatings and paints, tough elastomers such as roller blade wheels, soft flexible foam toys, some elastic fibres, and many other applications.
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)
Polyvinyl alcohol is a water-soluble synthetic polymer. The PVA fibre is used by the industry as a high performance fibre.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Polyvinyl chloride, or PVC, is used in diverse industrial, technical and daily applications: from window frames and blood bags to credit cards and raincoats. PVC consists of 38,41 % carbon 4,86 % hydrogen and 56,73 % chlorine and has been produced commercially since the end of the 1920s, when additives have been added to the mixture to create a plastic that was appreciated for its flexibility, durability and low cost.
Poplin is a strong fabric produced by the rib variation of the plain weave and characterized by fine, closely spaced, crosswise ribs. Though originally made with a silk warp and a heavier wool filling, poplin is now made of a variety of fibres, including silk, cotton, wool, and synthetic types, and with combinations of such fibres. It is used for shirts, pajamas, women’s wear, and sportswear and also as a decorative fabric.
For direct printing, a printing paste is prepared by dissolving the dyes in hot water to which is added urea and a solvent (ethylene glycol, thioethylene glycol, sometimes glycerine or a similar substance – and sometimes water). This solution is stirred into a thickener that is easily removed by washing. Small amounts of oxidizing agents are added.
The detailed specification of a manufactured item's parts and their relationship to the whole. A product design needs to take into account how the item will perform its intended functionality in an efficient, safe and reliable manner. The product also needs to be capable of being made economically and to be attractive to targeted consumers.
The creation of products with new or different characteristics that offer new or additional benefits to the customer. Product development may involve modification of an existing product or its presentation, or formulation of an entirely new product that satisfies a newly defined customer want or market niche.
Protective clothing is designed to protect the wearer against all kinds of risks, such as injuries or infections.
Protective gloves and protective clothing belong to the group of personal protective equipment (PPE).
Protective gloves can be divided into 3 categories depending on type and which risk or danger the gloves should protect against.
Category 1: Gloves of simple design, for minimal risks only, such as house-hold gloves used for cleaning and for protection against warm objects or temperatures not exceeding +50° C, light-duty gardening gloves or other work where the risk for injury is minimal.
Category 2: Gloves of intermediate design, for intermediate risks. Gloves are placed in this category when the risk is not classified as minimal or irreversible. The gloves must be subjected to independent testing and certification by a Notified Body, whom then issues a CE marking showing the gloves protective capacities: handling gloves requiring good puncture and abrasion performance.
Category 3: Gloves of complex design, for irreversible or mortal risks, such as gloves designed to protect against the highest levels of risk e.g. highly corrosive acids. Gloves in this category must also be independently tested and certified by a Notified Body (approved by the EU commission).
Animal fibres such as wool, hair and silk, are composed of proteins.The protein fibres are formed by natural animal sources through condensation of a-amino acids to form repeating polyamide units with a various substituent on the a-carbon atom. In general, protein fibres are fibres of moderate strength, resiliency, and elasticity. They have excellent moisture absorbency and transport characteristics. They do not build up a static charge.
Raffia is a strong natural fibre produced from species of palms native to tropical regions of Africa, and especially Madagascar. The membrane on the underside of the leaf is taken off to create a long thin fibre which can be dyed and woven as a textile into products ranging from hats to shoes to decorative mats.
Ramie is a natural fibre produced from Boehmeria nivea or Chinese Grass, a plant belonging to the nettle family. For more than 6000 years, fibres have been harvested from the stem of the plant and used for the production of threads and ropes, fishing nets, paper and textile products such as table linen, bed linen and curtains.
Ready-to-wear or prêt-à-porter is factory-made clothing, sold in finished condition, in standardized sizes. The advantage is that the price can be kept relatively low. Off-the-peg is sometimes used for items other than clothing such as handbags.
Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. It is an alternative to "conventional" waste disposal that can save material and help lower greenhouse gas emissions. Recycling can prevent the waste of potentially useful materials and reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, thereby reducing: energy usage, air pollution (from incineration), and water pollution (from landfilling). Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle" waste hierarchy. Thus, recycling aims at environmental sustainability by substituting raw material inputs into and redirecting waste outputs out of the economic system. There are some ISO standards related to recycling such as ISO 15270:2008 for plastics waste and ISO 14001:2004 for environmental management control of recycling practice.
Research & Development (R&D)
Systematic activity combining both basic and applied research, and aimed at discovering solutions to problems or creating new goods and knowledge. R&D may result in ownership of intellectual property such as patents.
Resource efficiency means using the Earth's limited resources in a sustainable manner while minimising impacts on the environment. It allows us to create more with less and to deliver greater value with less input.
Respiratory protective equipment
Respiratory Protective equipment protects the individual wearer against the inhalation of hazardous substances in the workplace air.
They come in two main types:
1. Respirator (filtering device) – using filters to remove contaminants in the workplace air. They include (a) Non-powered respirators relying on the wearer’s breathing to draw air through the filter and (b) Powered respirators that use a motor to pass air through the filter to give a supply of clean air to the wearer.
2. Breathing apparatus (BA) – needs a supply of breathing-quality air from an independent source (e.g. air cylinder or air compressor)
Ring spinning is one of oldest machine-oriented spinning techniques used for staple fibre (cotton, wool,...) spinning. It is a continuous process in which the roving is first attenuated by using drawing rollers, then spun and wound around a rotating spindle which in its turn is contained within an independently rotating ring flyer.
Round Robin Test
Test programme in which a number of laboratories test identical samples of a number of test materials in order (primarily) to determine the precision (repeatability and reproducibility) of each reported parameter in a test method. A round robin program is an analysis technique which uses Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) random effects model to assess a measurement system. Round robin tests help to bring to light systematic sources of error and can give rise to the necessary corrective action.
A roving is a long and narrow bundle of fibre. Rovings are produced during the process of making spun yarn from wool fleece, raw cotton, or other fibres. After carding, the fibres lie roughly parallel in smooth bundles. These are drawn out, by hand or machine, and slightly twisted to form lengths suitable for spinning. These unspun strands of fibre are the rovings.
Natural rubber is a polymer that occurs as an emulsion in the juice (containing 33% latex) of certain plants, such as the Brazilian and Indian rubber tree. The latex is filtered and diluted by water and then treated with acids to solidify the rubber particles. In 1770, the chemist Joseph Priestly accidentally discovered that the material was able to remove pencil stripes. From then on it was named after the verb “to rub”. Synthetic rubber is produced by the polymerization of petroleum.
The terms "carpet" and "rug" are often used interchangeably, although they are very different products. Whereas carpets usually cover the entire floor, extending from wall to wall and are secured in place, rugs only cover a certain area of the floor. Rugs are laid on top of other, usually harder floor coverings such as ceramic tiles or parquet floors.
Any fabric constructed by the satin weave method, one of the three basic textile weaves. The fabric is characterized by a smooth surface and usually a lustrous face and dull back; it is made in a wide variety of weights for various uses, including dresses, particularly evening wear; linings; bedspreads; and upholstery. Though originally a silk fabric, it is now made of yarns of other fibres. An all-cotton fabric woven in the satin structure is known as sateen.
The satin weave is characterized by four or more fill or weft yarns floating over a warp yarn or vice versa, four warp yarns floating over a single weft yarn. Floats are missed interfacings, where the warp yarn lies on top of the weft in a warp-faced satin and where the weft yarn lies on top of the warp yarns in weft-faced satins. These floats explain the even sheen, as unlike in other weaves, the light reflecting is not scattered as much by the fibres, which have fewer tucks.
Servitization refers to industries using their products to sell “outcome as a service” rather than a one-off sale. Netflix and Spotify are probably the most well-known example of this, delivering media as a service, rather than customers buying the CDs, DVDs et cetera that produce those outcomes.
The term servitization was first introduced in 1988 by authors Sandra Vandermerwe and Juan Rada, who argued that manufacturers needed a way to firstly set themselves apart from competitors, and more importantly to retain their customer base and increase levels of differentiation. However, the concept of servitization can actually be traced back to the 1960s, to Bristol Siddeley providing “Power By The Hour” – a servitization plan for their Viper engines. It was a complete engine and accessory replacement service charged at a set fee per flying hour. Rather than buying the engine, you bought the power it provided, allowing operators greater forecasting accuracy and relieving them of capital costs. such as engine stock and accessories.
Shape memory polymers (SMP)
SMPs are polymeric smart materials that have the ability to return from a deformed state (temporary shape) to their original (permanent) shape induced by an external stimulus (trigger), such as temperature change.
Sharkskin is made up of countless overlapping scales called dermal denticles when we saw it under the electron microscope. The appearance of the denticles is they have grooves running down their length in alignment with water flow. The function of the denticles is to disrupt the formation of eddies or we called it as turbulent swirls of slow water which lead to higher speed of water. In fact, the rough shape also discourages parasitic growth such as algae and barnacles. The fabrics include features that increase the swimmer's glide through water and reduce the absorption of water by the suit as opposed to regular swimsuits.
Silk is a natural protein, secreted by certain insects, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori. Also certain spiders are appropriate for silk culture. Both the textile fibre and fabric are called silk. Silk fabrics are appreciated for their lustre, suppleness and soft texture.
Sisal is sometimes referred to as "sisal hemp", because for centuries hemp was a major source for fibre, and other fibre sources were named after it.
The sisal fibre is traditionally used for rope and twine, and has many other uses, including paper, cloth, footwear, hats, bags, carpets, and dartboards. Sisal is named after a harbour in Yucatán.
Sizing and desizing
Textile warp sizing reduces breakage of the warp yarn and the number of production stops on the weaving machine where the warp yarns are subjected to cyclic strain, flexing, abrasion at various loom parts and inter yarn friction. Sizing improves the strength - abrasion resistance - of the yarn and reduces the hairiness of the yarn. Different types of water soluble polymers - called textile sizing agents/chemicals - such as modified starch, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), acrylates are used to protect the yarn. Also wax is added to reduce the abrasiveness of the warp yarns. The type of yarn material (e.g. cotton, polyester, linen), the thickness of the yarn, type of weaving machinery will determine the sizing recipe. The sizing liquor is applied on the warp yarns with a warp sizing machine. After the weaving process the fabric is desized (washed).
Skin wool, fellmonger wool
Wool obtained from the skin of slaughtered or deceased animals, usually by fermentation or chemical treatment. A fellmonger was a dealer in hides or skins, particularly sheepskins, who might also prepare skins for tanning. The name is derived from the Old English ‘fell’ meaning skins and ‘monger’ meaning dealer.
Small Science refers (in contrast to Big Science) to science performed in a smaller scale, such as by individuals, small teams or within community projects.
Commonly the expressions "smart" and "intelligent" textiles or wearables are used interchangeably.The term "smart textile" may refer to either a "smart textile material" or a "smart textile system". Only the context will determine which one of the two following definitions apply: Smart (intelligent) textile material: functional textile material actively interacting with its environment, i.e. responding or adapting to changes in the environment. Smart (intelligent) textile system: textile system exhibiting an intended and exploitable response as a reaction either to changes in its surroundings/environment or to an external signal/input.
Substance, usually a liquid, in which other materials dissolve to form a solution. Polar solvents (e.g. water) favour formation of ions; nonpolar ones (e.g. hydrocarbons) do not. Solvents may be predominantly acidic, predominantly basic, amphoteric (both), or aprotic (neither). Organic compounds used as solvents include aromatic compounds and other hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, ethers, ketones, amines, and nitrated and halogenated hydrocarbons. Their chief uses are as media for chemical syntheses, as industrial cleaners, in extractive processes, in pharmaceuticals, in inks, and in paints, varnishes, and lacquers.
Sorting is the first step in recycling polymer waste (from textiles and plastics) after collection. During this step, materials intended for recycling are separated, cleaned and prepared. Depending on its nature, sorted polymer waste will be processed directly on the site of the recycling company responsible for receiving it or be taken to a specialist recycling centre. There are many categories of materials and many processes, varying according to the type of product.
A spindle is a straight spike usually made from wood used for spinning, twisting fibers such as wool, flax, hemp, cotton into yarn. It is often weighted at either the bottom, middle, or top, commonly by a disc or spherical object called a whorl, but many spindles exist that are not weighted by a whorl, but by thickening their shape towards the bottom, such as Orenburg and French spindles. The spindle may also have a hook, groove, or notch at the top to guide the yarn. Spindles come in many different sizes and weights depending on the thickness of the yarn one desires to spin.
A spinneret may have from one to several hundred holes. As the filaments emerge from the tiny openings in the spinneret, the liquid polymer is converted first to a rubbery state and then solidified. This process of extrusion and solidification of endless filaments is called spinning, and may not be confused with the textile operation of the same name, where short pieces of staple fibre are twisted into yarn.
Spinning is a specialized form of extrusion that uses a spinneret to form multiple continuous filaments. The polymer being spun must be converted into a fluid state. If the polymer is a thermoplastic then it can be simply melted, otherwise it is dissolved in a solvent or chemically treated to form soluble or thermoplastic derivatives. The molten polymer is then forced through the spinneret, then it cools to a rubbery state, and then a solidified state. If a polymer solution is used, then the solvent is removed after being forced through the spinneret.
Split fibres are developed by twisting polypropylene tapes. The very first artificial turf was made from split PP fibres.
Sportswear or activewear is clothing, including footwear, worn for sport or physical exercise and its design depends on the demands of the sport activity in question.
Spunlaid, also called spunbond, nonwovens are made in one continuous process. fibres are spun and then directly dispersed into a web by deflectors or can be directed with air streams. This technique leads to faster belt speeds, and cheaper costs.
Fibre of discrete length that may be of any composition. The opposite term is filament fibre with a sheer limitless lengths for use.
Stimuli-responsive materials (SRM)
Stimuli-responsive materials (SRMs) have the particularity to change one or more of their properties under a defined stimulus. To account for the variety of underlying physico-chemical mechanisms, we call "transition phenomenon" the process by which SRMs transform an input, or stimulus, into an output, or response.
Short waste fibres from carded wool.
SVHC - substances of very high concern
Substances that may have serious and often irreversible effects on human health and the environment can be identified as substances of very high concern (SVHCs).
Synthetic resins are materials with properties similar to natural plant resins. They are viscous liquids capable of hardening permanently. Chemically they are very different from resinous compounds secreted by plants. Some artificial resins are manufactured by esterification or soaping of organic compounds. Some are thermosetting plastics in which the term "resin" is loosely applied to the reactant or product, or both. The first and best known synthetic resin is Bakelite, a phenol resin. Others are polyurethane resin and epoxy resin. Natural resins occur in trees and have the function to repair any damage by closing holes in the bark. Natural resins solidify under the influence of oxygen, whereas synthetic resins are usually cured by temperature.
A tarpaulin or tarp, is a large sheet of strong, flexible, water-resistant or waterproof material, often cloth such as canvas or polyester coated with polyurethane, or made of plastics such as polyethylene. Inexpensive modern tarpaulins are made from woven polyethylene.
Tarpaulins are basic products in emergency shelter solutions.
Technical fibres feature special characteristics that make them appropriate for the manufacturing of textile products and composites that are highly resistant to extreme conditions (climatological, industrial use, PPE) or of multifunctional/smart textiles.
Tensile strength is a measurement of the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. The tensile strength of a material is the maximum amount of tensile stress that it can take before failure, for example breaking.
Terry is an absorbent fabric based on a plain weave, which has an additional set of loops woven through the surface of the fabric. The loops are left uncut to form pile on the surface of the fabric, which is what gives terry the distinctive looped surface texture on both sides. The added surface area increases the absorbency, making terry ideal for towels of all sorts. The longer and more densely packed the loops, the greater the absorbency of the fabric. Terry is used to make towels, bathrobes, and absorbent headbands. The word "terry" derives from the French word "tiré", which means pulled (referring to the loops pulled from the fabric base).
The tex system, originally devised in 1873, is a universal method developed for the measurement of staple fibre yarns and is also applicable to the measurement of filament yarns. It is based on the weight in grams of one kilometre (3,300 feet) of yarn.
The word 'textile' is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning 'woven', from textus, the past participle of the verb texere, 'to weave'. A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial filaments (endless threads) or fibres (short pieces of thread). Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or felting. They are mostly deformable and can be one, two or three dimensional.
Textile auxiliary agents
Textile auxiliaries are used to improve the manufacturing process of textile fibres, yarns, fabrics and finished products, as well as the properties of the final textile product. The term includes a large variety of specialised chemical products, ranging from cleaning agents for natural fibres and smoothing agents for high-speed manufacturing, to additives introducing or enhancing easy-care, antimicrobial, flame-retardant and many other properties to the textile product during any stage of the production process (extrusion, spinning, weaving, finishing).
Textile coating is the process of depositing a layer in the form of a paste on one or on both sides of a (woven, knit, non-woven...) textile substrate. Direct coating is a commony used technique and is based on the application of one or various layers of polyurethane, PVC, acrylic resins, etc. paste, on a textile substrate, using a scraper, knife, cylinder, etc.
Textile coating is used to add properties to or to funcionalise textiles.
Dyes are molecules which absorb and reflect light at specific wavelengths to give human eyes the sense of colour. Textile dyes include acid dyes, used mainly for dyeing wool, silk, and nylon; and direct or substantive dyes, which have a strong affinity for cellulose fibres. Mordant dyes require the addition of chemical substances, such as salts, to give them an affinity for the material being dyed. They are applied to cellulosic fibres, wool, or silk after such materials have been treated with metal salts. Sulfur dyes, used to dye cellulose, are inexpensive but produce colours lacking brilliance. Azoic dyes are insoluble pigments formed within the fibre by padding, first with a soluble coupling compound and then with a diazotized base. Vat dyes, insoluble in water, are converted into soluble colourless compounds by means of alkaline sodium hydrosulfite. Cellulose absorbs these colourless compounds, which are subsequently oxidized to an insoluble pigment. Such dyes are colourfast. Disperse dyes are suspensions of finely divided insoluble, organic pigments used to dye such hydrophobic fibres as polyesters, nylon, and cellulose acetates.
Depending on their source and/or processing method, textile fibres can be subdivided in natural (vegetable and animal), artifical (chemical treatment of natural materials), synthetic, and mineral (metals, basalt, ceramic…) fibres. The textile industry requires that fibre content be provided on labels.
All mechanical and chemical processes employed to improve the quality or change the properties of the textile product.
Textile floor covering with pile, pile carpet
Floor covering having a textile use-surface formed from a layer of yarns or fibres projecting from a substrate, which can be manufactured by a woven or non-woven process. The floor covering can have a defined use-surface and a backing substrate (heterogeneous), or a proportion of fibres that is consistent from surface to back (homogeneous).
Protective under or upperwear against cold. They can be made from specialty yarns (e.g. the legendary thermolactyl® by Damart) or incorporate PCM (phase change materials) to regulate the body temperature.
Thermochromic materials change colour due to a change in temperature.
The thermoelectric effect of these substances refers to phenomena by which either a temperature difference creates an electric potential or an electric potential creates a temperature difference.
Thermoforming is a manufacturing process where a plastic sheet is heated to a pliable forming temperature, formed to a specific shape in a mould, and trimmed to create a usable product. The sheet, or "film" when referring to thinner gauges and certain material types, is heated in an oven to a temperature that permits it to be stretched into or onto a mould and cooled to a finished shape. Its simplified version is vacuum forming.
Tufting is the process of creating textiles, and more in particular carpets, on specialized multi-needle sewing machines. Several hundred needles stitch hundreds of rows of pile yarn tufts through a backing fabric called the primary backing. The needles push yarn through a primary backing fabric, where a loop holds the yarn in place to form a tuft as the needle is removed. The yarn is caught by loopers and held in place for loop-pile carpet or cut by blades for cut-pile carpet. Next, secondary backings of various types are applied to render a variety of performance properties.
Twill is a type of textile weave with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs . This is done by passing the weft thread over one or more warp threads then under two or more warp threads and so on, with a "step," or offset, between rows to create the characteristic diagonal pattern.
Upholstery fabric is a rather heavy, thick and stiff fabric used to cover and decorate sofas, chairs and other upholstered furniture. Their resitance to wear, colour fastness and easy cleaning (dirt repellency) are main requirements.
Luxurious mohair short pole woven fabric used for upholstery, wall decoration and gala costumes. Originally, the fabric was manufactured in Utrecht since the late 17th century.
Vat dyes are insoluble in water and cannot dye fibers directly. However, They can be made soluble by reduction in alkaline solution which allows them to affix to the textile fibres. Subsequent oxidation or exposure to air restore the dye to its insoluble form. Indigo is the original vat dye. These dyes are the fastest dyes for cotton, linen and rayon. They are used with mordants to dye other fabrics such as wool, nylon, polyesters, acrylics and modacrylics.
Plant-derived vegetable fibres are classified according to their source in plants as bast, leaf, or seed-hair.
Virgin wool is the wool taken from a lamb's first shearing. This is the softest and finest wool produced. There is another meaning of virgin wool - it can refer to wool that has never been used, processed, or woven before. This type of virgin wool can come from an adult sheep.
It was in 1891 that Cross and Bevan discovered a technique to manufacture viscose, a substitute for natural silk: The viscose process dissolves pulp with aqueous sodium hydroxide and carbon disulfide. This produces a viscous solution. This solution was the first thing to bear the name "viscose". The cellulose solution is used to spin the viscose rayon fibre, which may also be called viscose.
Soft, sheer fabric, usually made of 100% cotton or cotton blended with linen or polyester. Because of its light weight, the fabric is mostly used in soft furnishing. In tropical climates, voile is used for window treatments and mosquito nets. When used as curtain material, voile is similar to net curtains. Voiles are available in a range of patterns and colours. Because of their semitransparent quality, voile curtains are made using heading tape that is less easily noticeable through the fabric. Voile fabric is also used in dressmaking, either in multiple layers or laid over a second material. The term is French for veil.
A wool fibre is composed of four layers (from outer to inner layer): the corneous layer of scales (cuticula), an intermediate membrane (subcutis), the cortex and the medulla.
Fabrics are produced by converting yarns, and sometimes fibres, into a fabric having characteristics determined by the materials and methods employed. Most fabrics are produced by some method of interlacing, such as weaving or knitting. Other interlaced fabrics include net, lace, and braid.
X versus Y document
Once a patent application is filed, the authorities will verify whether the claimed invention is amongst others NEW and INVENTIVE in view of what is already known in the WORLD before issuing the patent. The rapport that is sent to the applicant sometimes refers to X and/or Y documents:
X-documents indicate that (part of) the invention is not NEW; in the light of these documents the invention cannot be considered as new
Y-documents indicated that (part of) the invention is not INVENTIVE; in the light of these documents, the invention cannot be considered as inventive
Therefore, a report containing a lot of X and Y documents is not a positive report.
A zipper, zip, fly, or zip fastener, formerly known as a clasp locker, is a commonly used device for binding the edges of an opening of fabric or other flexible material, like on a garment or a bag. It is used in clothing (e.g., jackets and jeans), luggage and other bags, sporting goods, camping gear (e.g. tents and sleeping bags), and other items. Zippers come in all different sizes, shapes, and colours.
Whitcomb L. Judson was an American inventor from Chicago who invented and constructed a workable zipper. The method, still in use today, is based on interlocking teeth. Initially, it was called the “hookless fastener” and was later redesigned to become more reliable. The modern type zipper was designed by Gideon Sunback and patented in 1913.